Quotations of Isaiah in the New Testament

The bible Book of Isaiah refers more fully to the times of the Messiah than any other of the prophets. It is natural, therefore, to expect to find his writings often quoted or appealed to in the New Testament. The frequency of the reference, and the manner in which it is done, will show the estimate in which he was held by the Saviour and by the apostles. It may also contribute in some degree to the explanation of some of the passages quoted to have them convenient for reference, or for examination. The meaning of Isaiah may be often determined by the inspired statement of the event referred to in the New Testament; and the meaning of a New Testament writer likewise by a reference to the passage which he quotes.

In regard to these quotations, also, it may be of use to bear in remembrance that a portion is made directly and literally from the Hebrew, and agrees also with the Septuagint version, or is in the words of the Septuagint; a portion agrees with the Hebrew in sense but not in words; a portion is made from the Septuagint translation even when the Septuagint differs from the Hebrew; and in some cases there is a bare allusion to a passage. It may be useful to furnish a classification of the entire passages which are quoted in the New Testament, under several heads, that they may be seen at one view, and may be compared at leisure. For this selection and arrangement, I am mainly indebted to Horne. Introduction vol. ii. p. 343ff:

I. Quotations agreeing exactly with the Hebrew text:
Isa_53:4

quoted in

Mat_8:17

Isa_53:12

quoted in

Mar_15:28; Luk_22:37

Isa_53:1

quoted in

Joh_12:38; compare Rom_10:16

Isa_52:15

quoted in

Rom_15:21

Isa_22:13

quoted in

1Co_15:32

Isa_25:8

quoted in

1Co_15:54

Isa_49:8

quoted in

2Co_6:2

Isa_54:1

quoted in

Gal_4:27

Isa_8:17-18

quoted in

Heb_2:13

II. Quotations nearly agreeing with the Hebrew text:
Isa_7:14

quoted in

Mat_1:23

Isa_6:9-10

quoted in

Mat_13:14-15; compare Act_28:26; Mar_4:12; Luk_8:10

Isa_54:13

quoted in

Joh_6:45

Isa_66:1-2

quoted in

Act_7:49-50

Isa_49:6

quoted in

Act_13:47

Isa_52:5

quoted in

Rom_2:24

Isa_1:9

quoted in

Rom_9:29

Isa_8:14

quoted in

Rom_9:33

Isa_52:7

quoted in

Rom_10:15

Isa_65:1-2

quoted in

Rom_10:20-21

Isa_29:14

quoted in

1Co_1:19

Isa_40:13

quoted in

1Co_2:16

Isa_38:11-12

quoted in

1Co_14:21; cf. Rom_11:34

Isa_40:6-8

quoted in

1Pe_1:24-25

Isa_53:9

quoted in

1Pe_2:22

Isa_53:5

quoted in

1Pe_2:24

Isa_8:12-13

quoted in

1Pe_3:14-15

III. Quotations agreeing with the Hebrew in sense,
but not in words:
Isa_40:3-5

quoted in

Mat_3:3; compare Mar_1:3; Luk_3:4-6

Isa_42:1-4

quoted in

Mat_12:18-21

Isa_59:7-8

quoted in

Rom_3:15-17

Isa_10:22-23

quoted in

Rom_9:27-28

Isa_45:23

quoted in

Rom_14:11

Isa_11:10

quoted in

Rom_15:12

Isa_52:11-12

quoted in

2Co_6:17

IV. Quotations which give the general sense,
but which abridge, or add to it:

Isa_6:9-10

quoted in

Joh_12:40; Mat_13:14-15; Mar_4:12; Luk_8:10; Act_28:26

Isa_29:10

quoted in

Rom_11:8

V. Quotations which are taken from several different places:

Isa_26:16; Isa_8:14

quoted in

Rom_9:33

Isa_29:10; Isa_6:9; Eze_12:2

quoted in

Rom_11:8

Isa_62:11; Zec_9:9

quoted in

Mat_21:5

VI. Quotations differing from the Hebrew text,
but agreeing with the Septuagint text:

Isa_29:13

quoted in

Mat_15:8-9

Isa_55:3

quoted in

Act_13:34

VII. Quotations in which there is reason to suspect
a different reading in the Hebrew text,
or that the words were understood in a sense
different from that expressed in our Lexicons:

Isa_60:1-2

quoted in

Luk_4:18-19

Isa_53:7-8

quoted in

Act_8:32-33

Isa_59:20-21

quoted in

Rom_11:26-27

Isa_64:4

quoted in

1Co_2:9

Isa_42:2, Isa_42:4

quoted in

Mat_12:18, Mat_12:21

VIII. Allusion to a passage in Isaiah:

Isa_12:3

Joh_8:37-38

IX. Quotations made from the Septuagint:
Many of the passages above referred to are made also from the Septuagint, when that version agrees with the Hebrew. I refer here to a few passages which have not been noted before. The apostles wrote in the Greek language and for the use of those among whom the Septuagint was extensively used. Occasionally, however, they quoted directly from the Hebrew, that is, made a translation themselves, or quoted according to the general sense. All the quotations that are in accordance with the Septuagint, or that vary from it, may be seen in Horne’s Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 387, 428.
Isa_49:6

quoted in

Act_13:47

Isa_65:1-2

quoted in

Rom_10:20-21

Isa_52:15

quoted in

Rom_5:21

Isa_49:8

quoted in

2Co_6:2

Isa_29:13

quoted in

Mat_15:8-9

Isa_55:3

quoted in

Act_13:34

Isa_53:12

quoted in

Mar_15:28; Luk_22:37

X. Quotations which differ from the Hebrew,
and the Septuagint, and which were perhaps taken
from some version or paraphrase, or which were so
rendered by the sacred writers themselves:

Isa_9:1-2

quoted in

Mat_4:15-16

Isa_42:1, Isa_42:4

quoted in

Mat_12:18, Mat_12:21

So numerous are these quotations, and so entirely do the writings of Isaiah harmonize with those of the New Testament, that it may be regarded almost as an indispensable part of the work of explaining the New Testament to explain Isaiah. They seem to be parts of the same work; and an exposition of the apostles and evangelists can hardly be deemed complete without the accompaniment of the evangelical prophet.

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